Growth by the Heat Exchanger Method and Characterization of Multi-crystalline Silicon ingots for PV

Multi-crystalline silicon ingots of 44 cm square cross section, weighing 80 kg, have
been produced by a modified Heat Exchanger Method in which a graphite insulation and heat
exchanger block move down from the heater during crystal growth to facilitate heat extraction
from the bottom of the crucible. Wafers of 300 J.ll1lthickness and 1.2 il-cm resistivity, have shown
consistency and uniformity in the properties required for large-scale production. The interstitial
oxygen concentration variesfrom 1.6 to 3.6 ppm, whereas the substitution al carbon concentration
is assessed to be below 10 ppm.

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