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Numéro 17

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Decolonizing african literature : a question of languages ? a case study of ngugi wa thiong’o

The debate over the issue of decolonizing africain literature revolves around two major questions : the language to be used in the writing of such literature and the critical criteria to be applied while appraising it.the present paper attempts to estabilish that a “genuine” decolonization of african litterature can only be made possible throughthe use of an afrocentric rather than a eurocentric approach in the study of any african literacy work. This is , of course , due to the cultural uniqueness and to the socio-historical contexts of the african folk tradition in the attempt to decolonize africain literature.



Déstructurations et restructuration de l’espace temporel dans Nedjma de KATEB YACINE

Cet article étude la question du temps dans le roman Nedjma de Kateb Yacine, ce dernier déstructure et le temps de la narration et celui de la fiction pour restituer un espace temporel ou domine le temps mental avec étude de cas des monologues intérieurs et celui « mythique » qu’il substitue a celui de l’histoire



The text is what the reader makes it : apprehension and gaps ; comprehension and traps

My modest paper revolves around the difficulty of decoding the clues of a literary text. A text is supposed to enfold the intended meaning of its maker ; but are we able to know and unveil such meaning ?
My paper tries to show that the objectivity of a literary text is an illusion, because it steps beyond reality, mainly when the author expropriates our world and makes it something proper to him. Here lies the difficulty ! The author presents something which represents something else, and this something else is beyond, or behind, the language code. This matter causes plurality in interpretation. Thus, what the teacher should do is to help the student (to) make it,but never to make it for him. And the student, in turn, should know that there is no ready-made or ready-to-grasp interpretation of a literary text. He must read(and re-read) and train his nature of sensibility.



The waste land and the love song of J.Alfred Prufrock : A Comparative Approximation**

The present paper attemps to look into T.S.eliots major thematic concerns and formal strategies through pointing out the similitudes that approximate his two major poems : the waste land and the love song of J. Alfred Prufrock. The external world bears the semblance of pessimisme and desponsdency, a compass that determines the direction of the movement of the characters and the outcome of their quest. The paper endeavours to canvass the reality with his juxtaposition of the idéals of the past with the reality of the present. These techniques involve enriching références to religious symbolism and mythology. The use of such techniques. It is concluded, both runs in accordance with the psychological movement in the two poems and serves the purpose of the universalisation of eliot’s interest.



Théâtre en Afrique noir, ristes et signes

Présentation du théâtre comme art importé, les formes rituelles et les manifestations artistiques africaines correspondent a une réalité et a une culture précises. Exp : le koteba, le gricot, le masque, les chants et la danse. La définition de la notion du théâtre a permis d’interroger le fonctionnement du rite et des formes populaires africaines mettant en évidence l’autonomie de la représentation africaine.



Anglo-free french strategy in northwest africa : operation against dakar,september 1940

After the fall of france in 1940, the britich prime minister winston churechill tried hard to persuade marshall pétain to continue the war from north africa but his effort was of no avail.this is the reason whey whinston churchill accepted to mount a combined operation with the free-french under teh leadership of general the gaulle to seize the french naval base of dakar. This article focuses on the preparation and execution of this operation, and than analyses its impact on different protagonists and finnally shows why the american interest for northwest africa started to grow.



Historiography of algerian nationalism : some ideological aspects

This paper analyzes, from a political and historical perspectives, the impact of each of the political groupings on the algerian nationalist movement. Based on some of the old and recent works, the study shows that the ideological basis of the algerian nationalism was determined by the interelations between liberal and conservative organisations in their struggle against the colonial power. Religion soon appeared to be the approriate means to reach the algerian public opinion. This factor largely explains the weak impact of secular control over political and social institutions in an independent algerian society.



American studies in prospection : new vistas, enduring legacies

American studies stands out today as a major scholarly province, attracting-at the outest of the new millenium-multiform intellectual, academic, and even stratégic interests to explore this rather magnetic arena within the oveall context of the on-going debate between, on the one hand, those who see the world’s return to multipolarity as imminent, entailing thrrefore the corrosion of america’s global supremacy ; and, on the other, those who see its current difficulties as not more than “pathologies”of an unprecedentedly impressive trajectory.



Evaluation of Oral performance : a proposed model

Whilst highlighting the paramount significance of evaluation in general and of oral performance in particular, the present paper attempts to probe into the function of evaluation which, it is argued, should transcend mere “quantification”. In the absence of adequate recording facilities, especially video equipement whereby the examiner can replay the examinee’s performance as many times as necessary after the speech, the designing of an evaluative instrument- which enables the teacher to ascertain the learner’s output during the speech-stands out as pre-condition for adequate and objective evaluation. After presenting a gamut of evaluation activities to be used by the teacher while evaluating oral skills, the paper looks into the four major categories and thereby the ten criteria comprised in the proposed evaluative model. Analysis is rounded up with a series of recommendations and guidelines, which are drawn from the author’s own teaching experience and also from the experiences and works of other researchers in the field, and that are deemed cardinal to the endeavour of attenuating subjectivity in the evaluation of oral performance.



Learning to learn : the role of autonomy in building up a learning strategy.

Reinserting foreign language learning within the broader field of learning appears today as a necessity.research on cognitive developement stresses natural phenomena we are bound to comply to if our aim is learning. One of the aspects, which iwould like to develop in the present article, the nationale being that this will probably foster a feeling of respnsability in the learner about his own learning. As the accademia is generally stressing and often frustracting, we believe that when feeling more responsible for his learning, that is in understanding what he is dowing and how he is doing it, whill increase in him self-confidence and security, and this often reduces stress and frusturation. When we consider the needs of a learner, which are greately emphasized as basic to his readiness to learn, it becomes obvious that if the teacher cooperates to reinforce and recognise the efforts attempted by the lerner, the latters feeling of competence and even masteryin the performed task will generate in him self-esteem. The autonomy pottentially reached by the learner will certainly enble him to devise a strategy in which learning to learn will be as important as what to learn.



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